Photophthalmia is produced due to exposure to short wavelength ultraviolet (UV) rays (especially in wavelength range of 311- 290 nanometer). The cornea absorbs ultraviolet radiation. This may be associated with
The essential change is the desquamation of corneal epithelium resulting in multiple erosions.
Symptoms of photophthalmia usually manifest with a latent period of about 4- 5 hours after exposure to ultraviolet rays. It includes
The symptoms disappear in about 1- 2 days following healing of corneal desquamation.
Photophthalmia may be caused due to exposure to short wavelength
The essential pathology is the desquamation of corneal epithelium resulting in multiple erosions.
Diagnosis depends upon the clinical history and signs observed on examination.
The symptoms in eye appear characteristically after a latent period of 4- 5 hours of exposure to ultra-violet light. There is intense burning pain, foreign body sensation, and watering of eyes. There is associated marked photophobia and blepharospasm.
On slit-lamp examination, corneal epithelium shows breach in continuity of epithelium which takes up fluorescein sodium stain. In severe cases, the epithelium of the cornea is detached, which may result in corneal erosion. There is conjunctival erythema (redness). There may be presence of retro-tarsal folds.
Management should be carried out under medical supervision.
General prophylactic therapy:
Prophylactic therapy consists of wearing dark glasses when exposure is anticipated. Material such as Crookes glass may be used, since it cuts off nearly all the ultraviolet and infrared rays.
It comprises of
Local surface topical anaesthesia to the eye should be avoided.