It is also called as Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS). It is a serious medical condition where a newborn baby's lungs cannot provide their body with enough oxygen. NRDS is also known as hyaline membrane disease, infant respiratory distress syndrome or newborn respiratory distress syndrome.
IRDS begins shortly after birth and is manifest by tachypnea, tachycardia, chest wall retractions (recession), expiratory grunting, nasal flaring and cyanosis during breathing efforts.
As the disease progresses, the baby may develop ventilatory failure (rising carbon dioxide concentrations in the blood), and prolonged cessations of breathing ("apnea"). Whether treated or not, the clinical course for the acute disease lasts about 2 to 3 days. During the first day the condition worsens and requires more support. During the second day the baby may be remarkably stable on adequate support and resolution is noted during the third day, with a prompt diuresis.
Despite huge advances in health care, NRDS remains the most common single cause of death in the first month of life in the developed world.
Along with tachypnea and tachycardia.
It is caused by developmental deficiency of surfactant (slippery and protective substance) production and structural immaturity in the lungs. It can also result from a genetic problem with the production of surfactant associated proteins.
These tests may include:
Babies that are born premature or are at high risk for the respiratory diseases, should be treated at birth by a medical team that specializes in newborn breathing problems.
There is a significant risk that babies who experience neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) may develop further problems:
In some cases of NRDS, air can leak out of the lungs and become trapped in the chest cavity. This is known as pneumothorax. Air leaks can be treated by inserting a tube into the chest to allow the trapped air to drain.
Babies with NRDS may experience bleeding inside their lungs (pulmonary haemorrhage) and brain (cerebral haemorrhage). Bleeding into the lungs can be difficult to treat but usually air pressure from a ventilator and transfusion of blood products allows the bleeding to stop.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a long-term lung condition that can affect some children with NRDS. It develops when the ventilator used to treat NRDS causes scarring to the lungs that affects their development. Symptoms of BPD include, rapid, shallow breathing and shortness of breath.
If the brain is damaged during NRDS, either due to bleeding or a lack of oxygen, it can lead to long-term developmental disabilities such as learning difficulties, movement problems, impaired hearing and impaired vision.