Flatulence (Nafakh-e- Me’da)


Flatulence (Nafakh-e- Me’da) is the excessive production and accumulation of gases (Riyah) in the stomach leading to abdominal distension. It is caused by cold morbid temperament (Su-e- Mizaj Barid) and weakness of innate heat (Zo’f-e- Haraarat-e- Ghareeziya). It is also caused by the use of flatulent and other foods which are difficult to be digested.

In other words flatulence (Nafakh-e- Me’da)  is the feeling of abdominal fullness, bloating, and movement of gas in the abdomen. It is a very uncomfortable sensation in abdominal area. Since flatulence is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms that are bothersome to patients, it is important to identify effective methods to resolve this issue.

Flatulence (Nafakh-e- Me’da)  is a build-up of gas in the digestive system that can lead to abdominal discomfort. Excessive flatulence can cause discomfort and distress. It often occurs as the result of eating certain foods, but it can be a sign of a more serious condition. Most people experience flatulence. In most cases, a change of diet and lifestyle can help control excessive gas.

It is characterized mainly by flatulence (Nafakh-e- Me’da), rumbling (Qaraaqir), feeling of heaviness in the abdomen, gastralgia (Pain in the stomach or epigastrium especially of a neuralgic type) and belching (To allow air from the stomach to come out noisily through the mouth).

Management of Flatulence (Nafakh-e- shikam)

In other systems of medicine, management of flatulence (Nafakh-e- shikam) is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, Unani systems of medicine can be considered good potential sources to find new approaches for preventing and treating flatulence (Nafakh-e- shikam).

Principles of Treatment/ Management of Flatulence (Nafakh-e- shikam)

  • Dietary restriction (Taqleel-e- Ghiza)
  • Warming the stomach (Taskheen-e- Me’da)
  • Toning up of stomach (Taqwiyat-e- Me’da)

Pharmacotherapy (Ilaj Bil Dawa)

  • Ferula foetida regel (Asafoetida/ Hilteet) diluted in vinegar and soaked in sponge may be kept over the abdomen
  • Application of any hot oil on stomach
  • Powder of Khulanjan (Alpinia galangal, Willd.) mixed with honey (Shahed) and Ferula persica, Willd. (Sakbeenaj) may be used orally
  • Hot and Dry fomentation with following drugs

Common salt (Namak Khurdani), Carum carvi Linn. (Zeera), Trachyspermum ammi, Linn. (Ajwain) tied in a pouch after heating may be kept in stomach.

Single Unani Drugs used in Flatulence (Nafakh-e- Me’da)

  • Zeera                                 (Carum carvi Linn.)
  • Ajwain                               (Trachyspermum ammi, Linn.)
  • Hulbah                              (Trigonella foenum-graecum)
  • Filfil siyah                          (Piper nigrum Linn.)
  • Kalonji/ Shooneez            (Nigella sativa Linn.)
  • Sakbeenaj                         (Ferula persica, Willd.)
  • Baadiyaan                         (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)
  • Kishneez Khushk              (Coriandrum sativum Linn.)
  • Duqoo                               (Peucedanum grande C.B Clarke)
  • Heeng                                (Ferula foetida regel)
  • Ginger                               (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)
  • Had                                   (Terminalia chebula Retz.)
  • Bahed                                (Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.)
  • Amla                     (Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Syn.: Emblica officinalis Gaertn.)
  • Haldi                                 (Curcuma longa)
  • Chhoti Elaichi                  (Elettaria cardamomum (Linn.) Maton)
  • Badi Elaichi                      (Amomum subulatum Roxb.)

Compound Drugs used in Flatulence (Nafakh-e- Me’da)

  • Jawarish Kamooni Sada
  • Jawarish Falaafil
  • Jawarish Anjadaan
  • Jawarish Bisbasha
  • Jawarish Sa’tar
  • Jawarish Pudina
  • Jawarish Amla
  • Jawarish Ambar
  • Ma-ul- Sha’eer (Barley water)
  • Safoof Razyanaj
  • Safoof Chutki

Regimenal Therapy (Ilaj Bil Tadbeer)

  • Massage of hot oil on upper abdomen
  • Medicated bath (Hammam) and frequent exercise (Riyazat-e- Kaseera) before taking food
  • Hot and Dry fomentation

Dietary Recommendations

  • Aghziya Mubakhkhira

Prevention/ Precaution (Tahaffuz)

  • Diet causing flatulence (Muwallid-e- Riyah Aghziya) to be avoided

(Muwallid-e- Riyah Aghziya- an agent which causes flatulence. its possible English equivalent is flatulent).

Note: Unani drugs should be taken under the advice of the qualified Unani physician. The patients are required to follow strict Unani regimen for optimum results.


  • PUBLISHED DATE : Oct 20, 2021
  • CREATED / VALIDATED BY : Dr. Mahtab Alam Khan
  • LAST UPDATED ON : Oct 20, 2021


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