This is the second edition of the Pocket book of hospital care for children. It is for use by doctors, nurses and other health workers who are responsible for the care of young children at the first level referral hospitals. The Pocket Book is one of a series of documents and tools that support the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI). It is an update of the 2005 edition, and presents up-to-date evidence based clinical guidelines from several recently updated and published WHO guidelines and recommendations. The guidelines are for use in both inpatient and outpatient care in hospitals with basic laboratory facilities and essential medicines. These guidelines focus on the management of the major causes of childhood mortality in most developing countries, such as newborn problems, pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, meningitis, septicaemia, measles and related conditions, severe acute malnutrition and pediatric HIV/AIDS. It also covers common procedures, patient monitoring and supportive care on the wards and some common surgical conditions that can be managed in small hospitals.