Treatment Methods

The treatment in siddha medicine is aimed at keeping the three humors in equilibrium and maintenance of seven physical constituents (Udal Thathukkal) elements. So medicine, proper diet and a disciplined regimen of life are advised to restore equilibrium of humors in diseased condition.In an unique way, the treatment is aimed at eliminating or rectifying the root cause than the symptoms. For example in the treatment of fever, drugs which boost up the immunity of the person and prevent the favourable conditions for infection are given rather than anti pyretics and antimicrobials.

Siddha drugs could be classified into herbal (Mooligai or thavaram), metals and minerals (Thathu) and animal products (Jeeva vaguppu). It is narrated by the Siddha sutra as follows:

“Ver paru thazhai paru minginakal

Mella mella parpa chenduram pare”

 Accordingly, it is advised to administer first pure herbs in the form of liquid, powder, pill or paste. Then if the ailment is chronic or nonresponsive to herbal medicines the usage of mixture of herbs, metals, minerals and animal products in addition to herbs is advocated.

The medical approach of treatment in Siddha system can be classified in to 3 (three) broad types

  1. Deva Maruthuvam (Divine method)
  2. Manida Maruthuvam (Human or rational method)
  3. Asura Maruthuvam (Surgical method)                

1.  Deva Maruthuvam or Divine method:

The medicines prepared from metals and minerals come under this topic. The speciality of these medicines is that a very small dose brings quick recovery even from chronic ailments. These are highly potent.           They can be preserved lifelong. No expiry date is mentioned for these medicines.

Twelve types of internal medicines are included in this category:

  1. Parpam (Microfine and white coloured)
  2. Chendooram (Microfine and red in colour)
  3. Chunnam (Medicines of higher order than parpam and chendooram)
  4. Mezhugu (Medicines with waxy consistency)
  5. Pathangam (Prepared in mud made sublimation apparatus called pathanga karuvi)
  6. Sathu (Prepared from minerals, mercuric compounds etc)
  7. Kalangu (Prepared from mercury and other minerals)
  8. Kattu (Consolidated and non breakable, stable product)
  9. Urukku (Prepared by using mercuric arsenic compounds, metals, kattu etc)
  10. Karpam (Taken internally in the form of leaves, root, metallic oxides etc in a proper dose with proper diet restriction)
  11. Theeneer (Prepared by distillation process)
  12. Guruguligai ( Preparing solid balls called mani  e.g. Rasa mani)

2. Manida Maruthuvam or Rational Method:

They are herbal medicines which have short definite life span. Dose may vary accordingly. They comprise of 34 types – 22 Internal medicines and 12 External medicines

Internal medicines:

  1. Charu (juice)
  2. Surasam (boiling the extracted juice)
  3. Kudineer (decoction)
  4. Karkam (Raw materials prepared in the form of  paste)
  5. Utkalee (superficially little dry and internally paste form)
  6. Adai (Prepared from raw drugs, rice flour and ghee)
  7. Choornam ( Fine powdered raw drugs)
  8. Pittu ( Raw Drugs processed in steam in the steam apparatus)
  9. Vadagam (Processed in steam apparatus and then rolled into tablets of required size)
  10. Vennai (Medicine in waxy consistency like butter)
  11. Manapagu (Medicine in the syrup form)
  12. Nei (Medicine in the form of ghee)
  13. Rasayanam (Medicine in the form of semi consistency)
  14. Ilagam ( Leghyam or medicine in semi-solid state)
  15. Ennai (Medicine in oil state)
  16. Mathirai (Pills or tablets)
  17. Pakkuvam (Processing raw drugs after soaking it in rice washed water, lemon juice, ginger juice)
  18. Thenural (Raw drugs like gooseberry are soaked in honey after making holes in it)
  19. Theeneer (Rawdrugs put in valai or distillation apparatus and processed)
  20. Mezhugu (Raw drugs ground to waxy state)
  21. Kadugu (Medicinal drugs processed in ghee)
  22. Kuzhambu (Medicine processed and prepared as semi-liquid consistency)

External applications:

  1. Vedhu (Steam- therapy)
  2. Pattru (Pasting procesed raw drugs on diseased part)
  3. Ottradam (Fomentation)
  4. Poochu (Processed juices of herb or oil application)
  5. Kattu (Like Bandaging)
  6. Pottanam (Fomentation after oil application)
  7. Kallikam (Eye- application)
  8. Thokkanam (Physical manipulation of body)
  9. Podithimirthal (Application of medicated powders)
  10. Mai (Raw drugs processed with anjanakkal)
  11. Nasiyam (Instillation of nasal drops)
  12. Nasikaparnam (Application of nasal powders)


3. Asura Maruthuvam or Surgical Method

These are surgical procedures meant for diseases which are not cured by internal medicines alone. They are of three types:

  1. Aruvai or Surgical application:
  2. Agni or Heat application
  3. Karam or Caustic application

Aruvai or Surgical application:

  1.     Aruvai or Excision
  2.     Keeral or Incision
  3.     Kuruthivangal or Blood letting
  4.     Attai vidal or Leech application
  5.     Salagai or Probing
  6.     Vardhi or Inserting medicated cloth pieces or Medicated wicks
  7.     Oothal or Blowing method
  8.     Peechal or Administering Enema
  9.     Urinjal or Sucking method
  10.     Kombu kattal or Splinting
  11.     Murichal or Resetting of bones
  12.     Thokkanam or Physical manipulations including Massage, varmam etc
  13.     Kattugal or Bandaging

 Agni or Heat application:

  1.     Suttigai or Cauterization
  2.     Vedhu or Steam therapy
  3.     Ottradam or Fomentation
  4.     Pottanam or Medicated bundles application
  5.     Pugai or Fumigation

 Karam or Caustic application:

  1.     Kaaram or Medicated caustic application
  2.     Seelai or Plasters or Medicated cloth piece insertion
  3.     Kalimbu or Paste prepared by grinding herbo mineral mixtures with butter.
  4.     Podi or Sprinkling medicated powders
  5.     Neer or Medicated solution
  6.     Kali or Paste prepared with rice powder
  7.     Pasai or Ointment which is prepared from bee-wax and herbo-mineral compound.



  • PUBLISHED DATE : Sep 25, 2015
  • LAST UPDATED ON : Oct 23, 2015


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